Old City of Zamość
Zamość was founded in the 16th century by Chancellor Jan Zamoysky on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea.
Built in the open country, Zamość was modelled on Italian theories of the ‘ideal city’ according to the plan of architect Bernando Morando, a native of Padua. It has retained its original layout, fortifications and a large number of buildings that combine Italian and central European architectural traditions.
The town’s layout was supposed to resemble the human body. The Zamoyski Palace was its head, while its backbone was Grodzka Street, intersecting Great Market Square from east to west. The side streets, such as Solna or Moranda, were meant to be the arms. Dating from the 16th century, Great Market Square is one of Europe’s magnificent city squares, complete with picturesque tenements and shady arcades.
Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork
The castle is considered World’s largest brick building made by human hands.
The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork was built at the turn of the 14th century and is the largest Gothic fortress in Europe. It consists of three castles and occupies 20 ha. From 1309, it served as the seat of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.
This piece of architecture is unique in the world, featuring as it does a number of technical solutions which were ahead of their times, in particular the design of vaults, gables and portals, and the use of sculptures and ornaments. The techniques employed at Malbork were later put to use in many castles of the Teutonic Order, as well as in dozens of other Gothic buildings across North Eastern Europe.
Centennial Hall in Wrocław
One of the 10 most important examples of 20th-century modernism according to the American Getty Foundation, the Centennial Hall is one of the major monuments of Wrocław.
‘The fact that the Centennial Hall made it to this list is a great honour. It is of no surprise to me, because it is a breakthrough facility in the history of architecture,’ said Marcin Szczelina, an architectural critic, for Polska.pl. ‘A hundred years ago, its form, structure and materials used, broke the structural constrictions of the time. Even today, it is a subject of research on the architecture of that era,’ he adds.
Royal Salt Mines in Wieliczka and Bochnia
The deposits of rock salt in Wieliczka and Bochnia have been mined since the 13th century. The mines are the oldest of their type in the world.
The Wieliczka mine
It is the oldest operating salt mine in the world. It illustrates the historic stages of the development of mining techniques in Europe from the 13th to the 20th century. It encompasses 9 levels, 2040 chambers and 360 km of galleries that form a mysterious labyrinth. Unique altars, statues and whole underground chapels with reliefs and chandeliers sculpted in salt move visitors to an amazing, fairy-tale world. Especially renowned for its beauty is St Kinga’s Chapel, whose size – 54 metres long, 18 metres wide, 12 metres high – has earned it the nickname “underground salt church.”
The mine houses an underground post office, restaurant, cinema, tennis court, and sanatorium which offers allergy and asthma treatment. It is a venue for concerts, theatre performances, and balls. You will find here the world’s deepest lying (approx. 125 m) hotel and playground for children. Each year, the mine has over a million visitors from all around the world.